Introduction

The ubiquitous LAMP (Linux / Apache / MySQL / PHP) Stack that runs on just about every private or SOHO, and even enterprise level, deployment has scores of guides available across the Internet. If you are establishing your own web server for the first time, you can google LAMP Stack $linux_distro and Google will return thousands of results; many of them up-to-date and accurate enough that you can reliably follow the steps provided to deploy a secure production environment where you can serve anything from your WordPress blog to private cloud storage with webmail and online calendar application. Attempting to do the same on OpenBSD, however, is not as fruitful; current, correct, and comprehensive guides are not as forthcoming from a Google search. To start, there is no comparable search pattern. For example, OAMP Stack (OpenBSD / Apache / MySQL / PHP) returns 23 results, most of which aren’t relevant, and less than a handful that are current and correct albeit short of comprehensive. Further, the base system web server included in an OpenBSD installation is named httpd, which presents more of a challenge in searching for quality content. There is, however, a silver lining for OpenBSD users: quality documentation and rock solid design. The official OpenBSD documentation is clear and concise; it's super easy to follow and always correct. And certainly much more reliable than the commonly praised and exhaustive, albeit garrulous, official documentation of its better known cousin, FreeBSD. Further, installation of OpenBSD ported packages provides additional system specific information in /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes with step-by-step instructions that produce sane configuration and a working setup out of the box. OpenBSD developers have put in a lot of work to ensure users are met with a precision in documentation that is equal to the stability and security of the system. It is an example of quality trumping quantity and engineering brilliance!

With that in mind, you will find this guide—which assumes an OpenBSD 6.2 system—presenting information sourced from the official OpenBSD documentation, provided in the website FAQ, as well as official software documentation. Proper use of these two sources combined with ad hoc use of relevant man pages are more often than not all that is needed for successful installation, configuration, and deployment of all OpenBSD base tools and packages.

HTTP Daemon Setup

OpenBSD comes with its own web server: httpd. It is secure, lightweight and very simple to use.

In OpenBSD, rcctl is used to configure and control daemons and services, which we'll use to enable and start httpd.

# rcctl enable httpd
# rcctl start httpd

The enable command adds an entry to /etc/rc.conf.local, which is where all the scripts that control the system daemons and services are either set or unset to run during system startup.

OpenBSD provides an example configuration file in /etc/examples/httpd.conf that you can peruse if not use for yourself. Creating your own, though, is really very simple and can be done in as little as a half dozen non-whitespace lines.

Create a new /etc/httpd.conf file with the following contents (replacing domain.tld with your site particulars):

types {  include "/usr/share/misc/mime.types" }

server "domain.tld" {
     alias "www.domain.tld"
     listen on * port http
     root "/htdocs/site_name"
     directory index index.php

     location "/*.php*" { fastcgi socket "/run/php-fpm.sock" }

     location "/.well-known/acme-challenge/*" {
             root "/acme"
             root strip 2
     }
}

The meanings of each line can be ascertained from the httpd.conf(5) man page. In short, the above will serve regular HTTP (i.e., port 80) domain.tld and www.domain.tld requests from /var/www/htdocs/site_name, and process all PHP requests through a Unix socket connection to the FastCGI Process Manager. The second location directive handles acme challenges that are received when generating a HTTPS certificate with acme-client(1)—described in detail in this post—and should be done after standing up this WordPress site.

Before moving onto MariaDB installation, copy some files needed for name resolution into the chroot, then check the syntax of the configuration file before loading httpd.conf:

# mkdir /var/www/etc && cp /etc/{resolv.conf,hosts} /var/www/etc/
# httpd -vnf /etc/httpd.conf
configuration OK
# httpd -f /etc/httpd.conf

That concludes the rather simple setup of the OpenBSD HTTP daemon, httpd.

Database Installation

OpenBSD offers both PostgreSQL and MariaDB, the open source MySQL fork, as binary packages available through pkg_add. PostgreSQL is an excellent (and likely superior) alternative to MySQL, but its configuration is not as widely covered by the official documentation of many third-party applications. Plus, for most personal and SOHO environments it is arguably overkill, with any real advantage not being utilised. In contrast, MySQL/MariaDB installations share common syntax with most documentation from third-party apps. In short, MySQL/MariaDB is simpler than PostgreSQL and more than enough firepower for this use case so it will be installed with:

# pkg_add mariadb-server

Once downloaded, use the install script provided before enabling and starting the daemon:

# mysql_install_db
# rcctl enable mysqld
# rcctl start mysqld

MariaDB provides a post-install script to secure the daemon and create a root superuser account, which should be run with:

# mysql_secure_installation

A series of easily answered questions will follow; set the root password and answer yes to each question.

Once finished, before accessing the database, change the environment to delete MySQL input rather than have it logged in clear text by adding the following to /etc/rc.local:
export MYSQL_HISTFILE=/dev/null

Now access MariaDB as the superuser to create a database for the upcoming WordPress installation; enter the root password when prompted before entering the following SQL statements to create the wordpress database owned by admin wp-admin authenticated with password:

# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 1
Server version: 10.4.12-MariaDB OpenBSD port: mariadb-server-10.4.12v1

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE wordpress;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON wordpress.* to 'wp-admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> quit
Bye

To ensure MariaDB can communicate with httpd through a unix socket, create its directory within the chroot:

install -d -m 0711 -o _mysql -g _mysql /var/www/var/run/mysql

Then edit /etc/my.cnf and change the socket location under both the client and mysqld sections to the absolute path of the socket file located inside the chroot:

[client]
socket = /var/www/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
socket = /var/www/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock
Note: Newer versions of MariaDB might instead have only one [client-server] section to place the socket directive.

Restart the daemon to make these changes take effect before moving onto the PHP installation:

# rcctl restart mysqld

PHP Configuration

In OpenBSD, like all applications installed with pkg, PHP is offered as a pre-compiled binary in one configuration, and any extensions that aren't built in the default provision can be installed as additional packages, which we'll now do with pkg_add; at the interactive prompt, select version 5.6.31 7.4.7 (i.e., option 3). In addition to the extensions needed for WordPress, we'll install some additional extensions needed by other applications planned for this server such as Nextcloud and Roundcube; if not needed for your use case, install only the first four items listed in the following pkg_add command:

# pkg_add php php-mysqli php-curl php-zip php-gd php-bz2 php-intl  php-pdo_mysql php-pdo_pgsql
quirks-3.325 signed on 2020-06-12T06:24:53Z
Ambiguous: choose package for php
  0: <None>
  1: php-7.2.31
  2: php-7.3.19
  3: php-7.4.7
Your choice: 3

With the web server previously configured to handle PHP requests, we can move straight onto PHP configuration. Start with enabling all the extensions just installed by symlinking the provided .ini files into the extension directory.

# cd /etc/php-7.4
# ln -s ../php-7.4.sample/*.ini .

Some minor adjustments to the default PHP configuration will be made to optimise runtime performance. Open /etc/php-fpm.conf and search for the string pm = to make the following changes:

pm = ondemand
pm.max_children = 50
pm.max_requests = 500

Next, activate Zend OpCache by either uncommenting and editing, or appending, the following entries to /etc/php-7.4.ini to enable caching compiled PHP files, which will increase the speed at which requests are served:

[opcache]
opcache.enable=1
opcache.enable_cli=1
opcache.interned_strings_buffer=8
opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000
opcache.memory_consumption=128
opcache.save_comments=1
opcache.revalidate_freq=1

Now enable and start php-fpm, and restart httpd:

# rcctl enable php74_fpm
# rcctl start php74_fpm
# rcctl restart httpd

Testing

At this point, httpd is up and serving out of /var/www/htdocs/site_name, handling PHP requests with FastCGI Process Manager, and communicating with the MariaDB backend managing the WordPress database through a unix socket. To test this setup, create the file /var/www/htdocs/site_name/info.php with the following contents:

<?php
  phpinfo();
?>

Now open domain.tld/info.php in your browser, and you should be greeted with the easily recognisable PHP info page.

If working as expected, delete info.php and move onto WordPress installation.

Web Deployment

Download the latest WordPress tarball into /var/www/htdocs/site_name, extract its contents, change the WordPress installation group ID to the www user, and copy the sample configuration file into place.

# cd /var/www/htdocs/site_name
# ftp -S do https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
# tar -zxvf latest.tar.gz
# rm latest.tar.gz
# chown -R :www wordpress
# cp wordpress/wp-config-sample.php wordpress/wp-config.php

Open wordpress/wp-config.php and define related database variables with the previously created database details:

define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
define('DB_USER', 'wp-admin');
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');
define('DB_HOST', 'localhost');

Now open /etc/httpd.conf to change the root of domain.tld to the relative path of the /wordpress directory inside the chroot so that domain.tld requests are served from the WordPress installation:

root "/htdocs/site_name/wordpress"

Reload the configuration for changes to take effect:

# rcctl reload httpd

Now it's time to open domain.tld where you will be presented with your new WordPress installation to enter some site details and create an admin user.

WordPress site setup

WordPress installation success

n.b. If you have any issues following this guide, don't hesitate to comment or email mark [at] jamsek [dot] com.

History

  • 2024-07-05 Fixed incorrect /etc/rc.conf.local location for MYSQL_HISTFILE=/dev/null environment variable assignment and replaced short open tags with normal tags in the phpinfo() code block. Thanks to Johannes Thyssen Tishman.
  • 2020-06-15 Updated to reflect the installation process on OpenBSD 6.7.


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